Bee News 3

 

 

Wild birds communicate and collaborate with humans, study confirms
Wild birds communicate and collaborate with humans        "Brrr-hm!"
When a human makes that sound in Mozambique's Niassa National Reserve, a wild bird species instinctively knows what to do. The greater honeyguide responds by leading the human to a wild beehive, where both can feast on honey and wax. The bird does this without any training from people, or even from its own parents.

 

Neonicotinoid residues in UK honey despite European Union moratorium
Neonicotinoid residues in UK honey despite European Union moratorium One in five samples of UK honey were found to contain neonicotinoid pesticide residues following the introduction of the EU-wide ban on the use of neonicotinoid pesticide seed dressings on flowering crops.
The low level residues of neonicotinoids found pose no risk to human health. However, previous studies suggest that while such concentrations are low, they could potentially have negative impacts on honeybee populations.

 

Thousands of bees burned to death in horrific arson attack on hives
Thousands of bees burned to death in horrific arson attack on hives Thousands of bees were brutally burned to death after arsonists attacked a group of hives.
Beekeepers discovered the devastating scene when they went to check on their insects in woods near Hopwood Hall College in Middleton, Greater Manchester.
One hive, which contained thousands of bees, had been completely torched, while another 12 had been ripped out and tossed into a nearby valley.

 

House of Commons Briefing Paper - Bees and neonicotinoids
House of Commons Briefing Paper - Bees and neonicotinoids
  • Are neonicotinoids bad for bees ?
  • What do we know about bee health ?
  • Why restrict neonicotinoids ?
  • The UK government’s stance
  • How and when were UK emergency authorisations sought and granted ?
  • How are pesticides regulated ?
  • Why did the EU restrict neonicotinoid use in 2013 ?
  • In more detail: what does the science tell us ?

 


Following the success of the course run in March 2017, the bees discovered and thrived in these hives, I will be running two more in April 2018.
Hampshire course: 7th – 8th April
Cornwall course: 14 – 15th April
Price: £200 which includes all materials, lunches etc and an evening meal on Saturday.
Both locations have log hives and we should be able to observe the colony which is a very different experience to the lifting of frames in a conventional hive.
For more details email ... 'beekindhives'

 

Suffolk naturalists concerned by River Waveney ‘neonic’ pollution
Suffolk naturalists concerned by River Waveney ‘neonic’ pollution The River Waveney’s levels of pesticide pollution, revealed by the charity Buglife, have brought the neonicotinoid controversy into sharp focus. Some of Suffolk’s leading naturalists have told of their fears for the much-loved river’s wildlife.

 

ASU Scientists Discover Gut Bacteria In Bees Spread Antibiotic-Resistant Genes To Each Other
ASU Scientists Discover Gut Bacteria In Bees Spread Antibiotic-Resistant Genes To Each Other Antibiotic use in farming and human health leads to bacteria acquiring resistance (indicated by a + sign in the illustration). Antibiotic-resistant bacteria in the environment are picked up by honey bees during pollination. In the bee’s gut, genetic material for resistance “jumps” to natural gut bacteria, which can spread resistance further. Overuse of antibiotics (USA) leads to more widespread and elaborate patterns or resistance (indicated by multiple colors of + signs). Restricted antibiotic use (Norway) leads to limited and less complex patterns of resistance.
It’s the kind of thing you might lose sleep over.
How will humans survive serious infections in the future if we’re running out of tools today to fight them? Antibiotic resistance among disease-causing bacteria is of global concern, as some last-resort drugs can no longer cure common illnesses such as urinary tract infections.

 

Vandalism destroys half million bees, wipes out Sioux City honey business
Vandalism destroys half million bees, wipes out Sioux City honey business A couple who manufacture and sell honey are feeling the sting after their Sioux City operation was vandalized overnight, killing at least half a million bees.
Justin and Tori Engelhardt, the owners of Wild Hill Honey, went to go dust the snow off 50 hives stored in a grove on their 18½ acre property on Sioux City’s west side around 10 a.m. Thursday.
As they approached the area where the hives were kept, Justin Engelhardt noticed their beekeeping supplies shed had been ransacked. He feared that whoever committed the act had done much worse, a thought that unfortunately came true for the apiarist.

 

What Is It Like to Be a Bee ?
What Is It Like to Be a Bee? You're a honeybee. Despite being around 700,000 times smaller than the average human, you’ve got more of almost everything. Instead of four articulated limbs, you have six, each with six segments. (Your bee’s knees, sadly, don’t exist.) You’re exceptionally hairy. A shock of bristly setae covers your body and face to help you keep warm, collect pollen, and even detect movement. Your straw-like tongue stretches far beyond the end of your jaw, but has no taste buds on it. Instead, you “taste” with other, specialized hairs, called sensillae, that you use to sense the chemicals that brush against particular parts of your body.

 

EU unanimously backs UN World Bee Day
EU unanimously backs UN World Bee Day The United Nations declared 20 May to become World Bee Day, adopting a resolution proposed by Slovenia and supported by all EU member states, which aims to raise awareness of the insects’ importance and warn about their dwindling numbers.
The decision to introduce a World Bee Day was taken at the UN general assembly in New York on Wednesday (20 December).

 

Major journal sounds alarm over global mass poisoning
Major journal sounds alarm over global mass poisoning Almost every human being is now contaminated in a worldwide flood of industrial chemicals and pollutants – most of which have never been tested for safety – a leading scientific journal has warned.
Regulation and legal protection for today’s citizens from chemical poisons can no longer assure our health and safety, according to a hard-hitting report in the journal PLOS Biology, titled “Challenges in Environmental Health: Closing the Gap between Evidence and Regulations”.

 

Bumble Bee Queens Slower to Start Colonies After Minimal Neonic Exposure
Bumble Bee Queens Slower to Start Colonies After Minimal Neonic Exposure Spring is an important period for bumble bees, as that’s when new colonies get their start. When a solitary bumble bee queen emerges from hibernation, she initiates a nest and then does the foraging work herself, until her first offspring hatch, develop into workers, and relieve her from all duties but egg laying. Thus, should any harm befall the queen in this early period, it can have ripple effects on the health of the developing colony.
According to a new study published last week in Environmental Entomology, queens of the bumble bee species Bombus impatiens that encounter the neonicotinoid insecticide imidacloprid in that foraging period show delayed nest initiation and brood emergence—if they survive the exposure at all.

 

New EPA Assessment: Neonicotinoid Pesticides Pose Serious Risks to Birds, Aquatic Invertebrates
New EPA Assessment: Neonicotinoid Pesticides Pose Serious Risks to Birds, Aquatic Invertebrates The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency released multiple scientific assessments today that found commonly used neonicotinoid pesticides can kill and harm birds of all sizes.
Separate analyses also found the pesticides pose significant danger to aquatic invertebrates, which play a crucial role in supporting larger ecosystems.
The troubling assessments come on the heels of earlier EPA analyses and thousands of scientific studies that have identified substantial risks to pollinators and aquatic invertebrates from this class of pesticides

 

Heavy Neonicotinoid Insecticide Contamination Damaging British Rivers
Heavy Neonicotinoid Insecticide Contamination Damaging British Rivers The first analysis of new monitoring data reveals that British freshwaters are heavily contaminated with neonicotinoids. Half of the sites monitored in England exceed chronic pollution limits and two rivers are acutely polluted.
Aquatic insects are just as vulnerable to neonicotinoid insecticides as bees and flying insects, yet have not received the same attention because the UK Government has not responded to calls to introduce systematic monitoring. Find the FULL report here

 


The Last Honey Hunter: Behind the Scenes

 

How honey bee gut bacteria help to digest their pollen-rich diet
How honey bee gut bacteria help to digest their pollen-rich diet The honey bee gut is colonized by specialized bacteria that help digest components of the floral pollen diet and produce molecules that likely promote bee health. Researchers have now uncovered which bacterial species perform which specific digestive functions in the bee gut.

 

Watchdog links pesticide to bee decline
Watchdog links pesticide to bee decline Draft findings from the European Food Safety Authority feed into a long-running, heated and so far inconclusive debate into why Europe’s bee populations are in decline.
EFSA has been looking at data on neonicotinoids since 2015, though the vast majority of the data on the risks posed by the substances was deemed inconclusive. But according to draft -- documents seen by POLITICO, one of the substances — imidacloprid, which is manufactured by Germany’s Bayer — could pose a danger to bees.

 

The German Amateurs Who Discovered ‘Insect Armageddon’
The German Amateurs Who Discovered ‘Insect Armageddon’ KREFELD, Germany — In a nature preserve in western Germany, an elderly gentleman approached a tent-like structure that was in fact a large trap for flying insects. Peering through thick eyeglasses, the 75-year-old retired chemist checked the plastic bottle attached at the top, filled with alcohol and bugs.
Then, with a glance at the clear, late-autumn sky, the man, Heinz Schwan, recalled comparing a 2013 haul from a trap like this one to samples taken in the same place some 20 years earlier. The drop was huge: “75 percent,” Mr. Schwan, a caterpillar lover, said.

 

SAVE THE BEES COALITION 80 EU NGOs gather to demand a full ban on neonicotinoids
SAVE THE BEES COALITION 80 EU NGOs gather to demand a full ban on neonicotinoids In December 2013, the European Commission restricted the use of 3 highly bee-toxic neonicotinoid insecticides, namely imidacloprid, clothianidin and thiamethoxam. On the 4th anniversary of the partial ban on these substances, new scientific knowledge confirms that these restrictions do not go far enough. Therefore, more than 80 EU NGOs are gathering to ask EU decision-makers to completely ban neonicotinoids without further delay.

 

Insectageddon: farming is more catastrophic than climate breakdown
 Insectageddon: farming is more catastrophic than climate breakdown
Which of these would you name as the world’s most pressing environmental issue? Climate breakdown, air pollution, water loss, plastic waste or urban expansion? My answer is none of the above. Almost incredibly, I believe that climate breakdown takes third place, behind two issues that receive only a fraction of the attention.

 

Lethal and sublethal effects, and incomplete clearance of ingested imidacloprid in honey bees (Apis mellifera)
Lethal and sublethal effects, and incomplete clearance of ingested imidacloprid in honey bees (Apis mellifera) After exposure to syrup contaminated with 125µg L−1 imidacloprid, honey bees experienced high mortality rates (up to 45%), had body residues of imidacloprid in the range 2.7–5.7 ng g−1 and exhibited abnormal behaviours (restless, apathetic, trembling and falling over) that were significantly different from the controls. There was incomplete clearance of the insecticide during the 10-day exposure period.

 

New research finds GM crop-related herbicides cause antibiotic resistance
New research finds GM crop-related herbicides cause antibiotic resistance The active ingredients of the commonly used herbicides, RoundUp, Kamba and 2,4-D (glyphosate, dicamba and 2,4-D, respectively), each alone cause antibiotic resistance at concentrations well below label application rates, a new study led by researchers at the University of Canterbury in New Zealand has found.

 

In bee decline, fungicides emerge as improbable villain
In bee decline, fungicides emerge as improbable villain When a Cornell-led team of scientists analyzed two dozen environmental factors to understand bumblebee population declines and range contractions, they expected to find stressors like changes in land use, geography or insecticides.
Instead, they found a shocker: fungicides, commonly thought to have no impact.
"Insecticides work; they kill insects. Fungicides have been largely overlooked because they are not targeted for insects, but fungicides may not be quite as benign - toward bumblebees - as we once thought.

 

U of S research reveals controversial insecticides are toxic to songbirds
U of S research reveals controversial insecticides are toxic to songbirds “Studies on the risks of neonicotinoids have often focused on bees that have been experiencing population declines. However, it is not just bees that are being affected by these insecticides.”
Research led by Margaret Eng, a post-doctoral fellow in Morrissey’s lab, is the first study to show that imidacloprid (neonicotinoid) and chlorpyrifos (organophosphate)—two of the most widely used insecticides worldwide—are directly toxic to seed-eating songbirds. The paper, published in Scientific Reports, shows these chemicals can directly affect songbird migration.

 

UK will back total ban on bee-harming pesticides, Michael Gove reveals
UK will back total ban on bee-harming pesticides, Michael Gove reveals The UK will back a total ban on insect-harming pesticides in fields across Europe, the environment secretary, Michael Gove, has revealed.
The decision reverses the government’s previous position and is justified by recent new evidence showing neonicotinoids have contaminated the whole landscape and cause damage to colonies of bees. It also follows the revelation that 75% of all flying insects have disappeared in Germany and probably much further afield, a discovery Gove said had shocked him.

 

Detection of deformed wing virus in Vespa crabro (European Hornet)
Detection of deformed wing virus in Vespa crabro (European Hornet) Specimens of Vespa crabro L. queen were found to be infected by deformed wing virus (DWV). The abdomen and the thorax of asymptomatic and symptomatic wasps were positive for the virus by strand specific RT-PCR, indicating active replication. This finding confirms the ability of the virus to infect not only bees (Apoidea) but also wasps (Vespoidea) suggesting a possible transmission route by ingestion of infected honey bees by wasp’s larva. This is the first report concerning the detection of DWV in V. crabro. In the view of this finding the possibility of using naturally infected bees as a tool for the biological control of its predators is discussed. PDF Download

 

Do We Really Think ANY Wildlife Survives the Chemical Barrage of Farmers Year After Year After Year?
Do We Really Think ANY Wildlife Survives the Chemical Barrage of Farmers Year After Year After Year? I am convinced agriculture for millennia was civilization. But since the late nineteenth century farming was forced to industrialize supposedly to feed the world. Giant farms growing one crop rang the dinner bell for countless insect-pests. This triggered a chemical warfare at the farm.
Industrialization brought the violent metamorphosis of civilization to a factory. Pesticides became the pillars of this factory.
Second, my lengthy work for the US Environmental Protection Agency convinced me pesticides, like nuclear bombs, have to be abolished. Their warfare history and effects are simply intolerable

 

A Potential New Tool in the Battle Against a Bee-Killing Bacteria
A Potential New Tool in the Battle Against a Bee-Killing Bacteria It’s a beekeeper’s nightmare: She lifts the lid on her carefully tended hive and is greeted with a whiff of rotting flesh. Further inspection finds that the young bees of the colony, who should be plump, pearly-white larvae, have melted into a puddle of brownish goo at the bottom of their cells. This colony is infected with American foulbrood disease—most likely a death sentence.
American foulbrood disease, or AFB, is caused by the Paenibacillus larvae bacterium, a difficult-to-control and highly destructive pathogen found worldwide. In a study published last week in the open-access Journal of Insect Science, Israel Alvarado, Ph.D., and colleagues at the University of Nevada, Las Vegas (UNLV), explore whether blocking the germination of P. larvae spores is an effective way to treat this infection

 

Environmentalists call for pesticide ban as study shows extent of insect decline
Environmentalists call for pesticide ban as study shows extent of insect decline Scientists have raised the alarm after a study 27 years in the making found the biomass of flying insects in nature protected areas has declined by more than 75% since 1990. The causes of the decline are not fully understood.
The decline of Europe’s bee populations has been on policy-makers’ radars for some time. Less attention has been paid to the plight of other flying insects but a study published in scientific journal Plos One in October has revealed that they too have declined in both diversity and abundance in the last quarter of a century.

 

Special Suits Bought For Fight Against Aggressive Asian Hornets. Bee Suits On Steroids
Special Suits Bought For Fight Against Aggressive Asian Hornets. Bee Suits On Steroids PEST control experts have undergone training in France as part of the Jersey’s (UK) fight against Asian hornets and have come back with special suits to protect them from the aggressive insects.
As well as sending experts for training in Normandy, the Environment Department has bought two extra-thick suits and long lances to inject insecticide into nests.

 

Honeybee colony losses and threats in Scotland. (2012-2017)
Honeybee colony losses and threats in Scotland. (2012-2017) Results of the last overwinter survey and reflections on what the data of the last 6 years indicate are now available to download
Many will have heard of the latest studies, linking neonicotinoids to honeybee colony problems and the report recently released that 75% of honey sampled in a global study is now contaminated with neonicotinoids. The full list of expert opinions may be found here

 

Eat Honey Every Day And These 8 Things Are Going To Happen To Your Body
Eat Honey Every Day And These 8 Things Are Going To Happen To Your Body Nowadays, something many people like is to enjoy their body. They would like to have one thing that that they could enjoy taking and it will be like a magic pill. All of the things that aren’t perfect will be fixed soon.
One of the products that can help us achieve many great things and is abundant in healthy properties is honey. Only 1 tablespoon of honey can help you a lot and here, we’re going to present you how!

 

Researcher reports key components of honey bee antiviral defense
Researcher reports key components of honey bee antiviral defense Laura Brutscher, who earned her doctorate in the Department of Microbiology and Immunology in MSU's College of Agriculture and College of Letters and Science, published her study on the mechanisms honey bees use to fight off viruses in Scientific Reports.
"This project has taken a lot of patience, time and perseverance, so it's personally validating to know that my work has been accepted by the scientific community," Brutscher said.

 

Pollination Assessment Reports
Pollination Assessment Reports
  • Summary for Policy Makers of the thematic assessment of Pollinators, Pollination and Food Production
  • Individual chapters and their executive summaries of the thematic assessment on pollinators, pollination and food production

 

The Buzz: October News from Peeblesshire Beekeepers
The Buzz: October News from Peeblesshire Beekeepers Peter Stevenson, treasurer of Peeblesshire Beekeepers Association brings us details on honey extraction ...
“The best way to extract honey is in the nude”, says the beekeeping sage. It certainly can be a sticky business, but the local beekeepers did not go to those lengths for their processing demonstration.

 

'Steady decline' in honey crop raises concern for honeybees' future
'Steady decline' in honey crop raises concern for honeybees' future British Beekeepers Association survey reveals worrying drop in honey yield, with 62% of beekeepers saying neonicotinoids are to blame
Beekeepers have raised concerns over the future of honeybees as an annual survey showed a “steady decline” in the honey crop.
The survey by the British Beekeepers Association (BBKA) revealed beekeepers in England produced an average of 11.8kg (26 lb) of honey per hive this year, down 1kg on last year.

 

I Investigated The Honey Market And Thought It Could Do With A Different Approach
I Investigated The Honey Market And Thought It Could Do With A Different Approach A young honey-making entrepreneur in Wales, who started his business in the back yard of his parents’ home, has landed a deal to supply 500 stores operated by the giant UK supermarket chain Tesco.
Hilltop Honey was founded back in 2011 when Scott Davies was recovering from a back injury received playing rugby. Part of his rehabilitation saw him walking to the end of his parents’ garden where there was a beehive.
Davies became fascinated with the bees and started beekeeping.

 

A giant insect ecosystem is collapsing due to humans. It's a catastrophe
A giant insect ecosystem is collapsing due to humans. It's a catastrophe Insects have triumphed for hundreds of millions of years in every habitat but the ocean. Their success is unparalleled, which makes their disappearance all the more alarming
Does it matter ? Even if bugs make you shudder? Oh yes. Insects are vital plant-pollinators and although most of our grain crops are pollinated by the wind, most of our fruit crops are insect-pollinated, as are the vast majority of our wild plants, from daisies to our most splendid wild flower, the rare and beautiful lady’s slipper orchid.

 

Expert panel identifies unacceptable toll of food and farming systems on human health
Expert panel identifies unacceptable toll of food and farming systems on human health A major new report on the damage to human health from existing industrial and chemical-intensive conventional food and farming systems was launched today by the UN Committee on World Food Security in Rome.

 

More than 75 percent decline over 27 years in total flying insect biomass in protected areas
More than 75 percent decline over 27 years in total flying insect biomass in protected areas Global declines in insects have sparked wide interest among scientists, politicians, and the general public. Loss of insect diversity and abundance is expected to provoke cascading effects on food webs and to jeopardize ecosystem services.
Here, we used a standardized protocol to measure total insect biomass using Malaise traps, deployed over 27 years in 63 nature protection areas in Germany (96 unique location-year combinations) to infer on the status and trend of local entomofauna. Our analysis estimates a seasonal decline of 76%, and mid-summer decline of 82% in flying insect biomass over the 27 years of study.
We show that this decline is apparent regardless of habitat type, while changes in weather, land use, and habitat characteristics cannot explain this overall decline.

 

Luring hornets: Scientists unlock sex pheromone of notorious honey bee predator
Luring hornets: Scientists unlock sex pheromone of notorious honey bee predator Over the past decade, Asian hornets, predatory insects with a widespread and expanding population, have invaded parts of Europe and Korea. Vespa velutina has a growing reputation as a species that proliferates rapidly, preys on honey bees and poses risks to humans.
Now a biologist at the University of California San Diego and his colleagues in Asia have developed a solution for controlling Asian hornets derived from the insect's natural chemical mating instincts.

 

Glyphosate formulations and their use for the inhibition of 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS)
Glyphosate formulations and their use for the inhibition of 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS) Glyphostae has been found in Honey
The patent also says that "Oxalic acid was shown to enhance the inhibition of EPSPS by glyphosate" so once again, we beekeepers could be making things worse through our varroa treatments. The recent rise in popularity of oxalic treatments might also explain the lack of evidence of prior problems.

 

Europe’s Stone Age fishers used beeswax to make a point
Europe’s Stone Age fishers used beeswax to make a point Late Stone Age people got a grip thanks to honeybees. Northern Europeans attached a barbed bone point to a handle of some kind with a beeswax adhesive around 13,000 years ago, scientists say. The result: a fishing spear.
Using beeswax glue to make tools was common in Africa as early as 40,000 years ago. But this spear is the first evidence of its use in cold parts of Europe at a time toward the end of the Stone Age when the glaciers were receding, say archaeologist Michael Baales of LWL-Archӓologie für Westfalen in Olpe, Germany, and his colleagues.

 

Honey tests reveal global contamination by bee-harming pesticides
Honey tests reveal global contamination by bee-harming pesticides Honey from across the world is contaminated with potent pesticides known to harm bees, new research shows, plus supplementary materials and methodology, clearly revealing the global exposure of vital pollinators for the first time.
Almost 200 samples of honey were analysed for neonicotinoid insecticides and 75% contained the chemicals, with most contaminated with multiple types. Bees range over many kilometres to collect nectar and pollen, making the honey they produce an excellent indicator of the pesticide pollution across their local landscape.

 

World’s Oldest Beehives Farmed in Israel at Time of Prophet Elisha
World’s Oldest Beehives Farmed in Israel at Time of Prophet Elisha Beeswax was found at the bottom of the ancient beehives excavated at Tel Rehov in the Jordan Valley, the oldest ever discovered.
An Israeli archaeologist made a remarkable and rare discovery to ensure that all of Israel has a year as sweet as honey, while helping understand the Bible just a little bit better.
Hebrew University professor Amihai Mazar was exploring an archaeological dig at a site in the Jordan Valley called Tel Rehov when he found evidence of beekeeping 3,000 years ago, the oldest evidence of this industry ever discovered

 

Surprising Discovery: Nectar-Living Microbes Influence a Pollinator's Foraging Preference
Surprising Discovery: Nectar-Living Microbes Influence a Pollinator's Foraging Preference Nectar-living microbes release scents or volatile compounds, too, and can influence a pollinator's foraging preference, according to newly published research led by UC Davis community ecologist Rachel Vannette.
The groundbreaking research shows that nectar-inhabiting species of bacteria and fungi “can influence pollinator preference through differential volatile production,” said Vannette, an assistant professor in the UC Davis Department of Entomology and Nematology.

 

Severe threats to biodiversity from neonicotinoid pesticides revealed in latest scientific review
Severe threats to biodiversity from neonicotinoid pesticides revealed in latest scientific review Neonicotinoid pesticides pose severe threats to ecosystems worldwide, according to an update to the world’s most comprehensive scientific review of the ecological impacts of systemic pesticides released by IUCN's Task Force on Systemic Pesticides (TFSP) this week.
The second edition of the Worldwide Integrated Assessment of the Effects of Systemic Pesticides on Biodiversity and Ecosystems synthesises more than 500 studies since 2014, including some industry-sponsored studies. It was released by the TFSP,an international group of independent scientists convened by the International Union for Conservation of Nature.

 

Police Have Arrested A Beekeeper In Relation To The Theft Of Nearly $200,000 Worth Of Beehives
 Police Have Arrested A Beekeeper In Relation To The Theft Of Nearly $200,000 Worth Of Beehives A 46-year-old Bay of Plenty man was arrested in Northland and charged with burglary and receiving stolen property.
Police recovered 120 hives last week, and said they found 80 more when they arrested the man.
To date, Bay of Plenty Police have recovered around $150,000 to $200,000 worth of stolen beehives and beekeeping equipment following a spate of thefts in the region.

 

Court: EPA Must Reveal Information on Pesticides' Harms to Endangered Species
Court: EPA Must Reveal Information on Pesticides' Harms to Endangered Species Responding to a lawsuit filed by the Center for Biological Diversity, a federal judge has ruled that the Environmental Protection Agency failed to justify withholding more than 140 documents on the harm to protected wildlife from the highly toxic pesticide Enlist Duo. [Contains two components — 2,4-D and glyphosate]
The case involved the EPA’s controversial decision to approve use of Enlist Duo in 16 states even though the agency found the herbicide likely puts dozens of endangered and threatened species at risk.

 

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