| Bee Diseases
For more information - download the FERA leaflet 'Foulbrood disease of honey bees and other common brood disorders'
|Appearance of brood comb||Unsealed brood, some sealed brood in advanced cases with discoloured, sunken or punctured cappings||Sealed brood, discoloured, sunken, or punctured cappings|
|Age of dead brood||Usually young unsealed larvae, occasionally older sealed larvae, typically in coiled stage||Usually older sealed larvae or young pupae lying lengthwise in cells|
|Colour of dead brood||Dull white, becoming yellowish white to brown, dark brown, or almost black||Dull white, becoming light brown, coffee brown to dark brown, or almost black|
|Consistency of dead brood||Watery, rarely sticky or ropy, granular||Soft, becoming sticky to ropy|
|Odour of dead brood||Slightly to penetrating sour||Slightly to pronounced putrid odour|
|Scale characteristics||Usually twisted in cell, does not adhere to cell wall, rubbery, black in colour||Lies uniformly flat on lower side of cell, adheres tightly to cell wall, fine, thread-like tongue of dead may be present, head lies flat, black in colour|
|European foulbrood||American foulbrood|
|Braula, Braula coeca or 'Bee louse' is a six legged wingless fly, are reddish-brown in colour and are often misdiagnosed as varroa mites. It is about 1.6 mm in length. The adults are often found on the heads of honey bee workers, drones, and especially queens.
While on the heads of the host bee, the bee louse will feed on food from the mouth of its host as the host is fed by another bee or is feeding another bee. You can sometimes spot the bee louse in places where bees congregate such as flowers or salt licks, waiting to grab onto hosts from uninfested nests.
|The beetle has spread to Canada, Mexico, Jamaica, Australia, Cuba and now Italy where it has proved it can be a very serious pest of European honey bees. There is an extreme risk of it's accidental introduction into the UK. Larvae of the small hive beetle can cause total destruction to honey bees colonies
within a season. They tunnel through combs, eating honey and pollen and killing bee brood, completely ruining the combs.
Heavy infestations cause bees to abscond; some beekeepers have reported the rapid collapse of even strong colonies.
Worse, the larvae defecate in honey promoting fermentation. Fermented honey cannot be used by anyone and has to be destroyed.
The beetles can feed on ripened fruit and, therefore contaminated fruit and cucurbits could provide an effective means for the pest to spread. Beetles have been recorded to fly up to seven kilometers.
|The adult beetle, which is the stage most commonly seen, is black or dark brown, ovoid in outline and about 5–7 mm long.
They have clearly clubbed antennae and wing cases (elytra) shortened so that the apical few segments of the abdomen are visible.
In general, the adult beetles are about one third the size of a worker honeybee. The adult beetles lay small elongate whitish eggs in clumps in beehives. The eggs are smaller than honeybee eggs but similar in shape and colour. Download ... Identifying the Small Hive Beetle (Power-Point presentation)
The larvae grow to 10–13 mm long, cigar shaped and pale whitish cream. Their most distinctive feature is the presence of two rows of short spines along the center of the back, with the last two projecting beyond the rear end of the larva. When fully grown, the larvae enter the soil in front of and beneath the hive to pupate.
The Small Hive Beetle larva should not be confused with the Wax moth larva, which has a number of prolegs in addition to its thoracic legs and also spins web or cocoons.
LIFE CYCLE OF SMALL HIVE BEETLE
Adult beetles live primarily in the hives, where they feed on bee eggs, pollen and rubbish within the hive. They lay their eggs, usually out of the way of bees, within hives. These eggs, which are 1.2 mm long and white, can be found anywhere in a hive – including on wax – and are difficult to find. The eggs usually hatch into larvae after 2–4 days
|Larvae grow in the hives and mature by 21 days.
They feed on pollen and brood in particular, but burrow through wax and can feed
on, and contaminate, honey as well. The mature larvae are attracted to light and
leave the entrance of the hive to find soil in which to pupate.
They burrow up to 200 mm deep into the soil, depending on the soil type. They prefer soft, sandy soil. In the USA, 100% of pupating larvae have been found within 900 mm of the hive. Not all larvae leave the hive – pupae can be found lodged in hives or stored material as well as soil.
SPREAD OF SMALL HIVE BEETLEWhile the beetle is spread mainly by the movement by beekeepers of beehives and bees, direct spread by flying beetles up to seven kilometers has now been seen in Australia.
What can you do?
The UK government, in its ever increasing inspirational wisdom, has decreed that
Honeybees may be imported from third world countries into the UK.
These imports will be restricted to consignments of Queen bees and attendant workers only.
Three of the countries listed ... you guessed correctly ... are South Africa, Australia and now Italy both rife with the small hive beetle.
Varroa is believed to have been introduced into the UK with consignments of Queen bees and attendants.
History is about to be re-run and others will pay the price for uncaring officialdom and the greed of the few beekeepers who continue to import exotic queens. The Beetle has now been in south west Italy
The import of ALL bees into UK should be prohibited.
If you have any feeling on this subject and would like to mount some form of protest ... please will you write to Elizabeth Truss MP Secretary of State for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs and ask for this Legislation to be reversed. Please include your address and telephone details in you letter/e-mail, or DEFRA will tell you 'they can't take your letter any further without them'
For more information - download the FERA leaflet:'The Small Hive Beetle'
Department of Agriculture and Forestry, Union of South Africa 1940 No.220 pp.30 pp. ref.4
An account is given of observations at Pretoria on the bionomics of Aethina tumida, Murray, whish has been found in bee-hives in parts of South Africa. This Nitidulid was described in 1867 from Nigeria, and was recorded from Durban in 1920, but there is apparently no earlier record of its occurrence in bee-hives. It is probably widely distributed in tropical and sub-tropical Africa and is apparently commoner in the warmer areas of South Africa. Though not a major pest, it sometimes becomes almost as harmful as Galleria mellonella, L. The adults collect mostly on the rear portion of the bottom board of the hive, where they can easily feed on the pellets of pollen that fall from the cluster of bees above, and are relatively free from interference. The larvae are particularly troublesome in weak colonies and in combs in storage. They feed on honey and pollen, and though they damage the comb, are less destructive than those of G. mellonella. All stages of A. túmida are briefly described. The eggs are laid in irregular masses, preferably in cracks and crevices, and pupation occurs in the soil beneath the hive. In breeding experiments, in which the Nitidulid was successfully reared in small tin boxes at room temperature, the egg, larval and pupal stages lasted 2-3, 10-16 and 21-28 days, respectively, and the adults survived for over six months. Five generations developed in the course of the year, but oviposition did not occur from mid-April to mid-August. The number of eggs deposited by a single female was not ascertained, but two or three beetles in a pile of supers can cause a heavy infestation. The larvae did riot mature when supplied with honey only, but developed as rapidly on pollen as on a mixture of pollen and honey. No evidence of parasitism was obtained, and although females of Microbracon brevi-cornis, Wesm., which parasitises the larvae of G. mellonella, readily inserted their ovipositors into larvae of A. tumida, no parasites were reared from these larvae, all of which died on the second or third day after being stung. Stored combs that are heavily infested with larvae of the Nitidulid can be fumigated with carbon bisulphide at a minimum dose of l oz to three deep Langstroth hive bodies. Combs that are only lightly infested can be returned to the bees to be cleaned, but those with heavier infestations should first be washed with a hose. Although the bees rarely succeed in ejecting the adult beetles from the hive, they have no great difficulty in removing the larvae from the combs.
|The females of T. clareae are light-reddish brown and about 1.0 mm long x 0.6 mm wide, and the males are almost as large as the females (about one-third the size of a Varroa mite). The life cycle and parasitism of A. mellifera is similar to that of Varroa destructor. T. clareae readily infests colonies of A. mellifera in Asia, particularly where colonies produce brood continuously. Adult female mites enter cells containing larvae where reproduction takes place within sealed brood cells.|
Varoa shown on the left
|If you have Tropilaelaps mites, they are the only thing you need to be concerned about to say the least. In comparison to Tropilaelaps, Varroa mites are no issue. Their damage to colonies is similar to that of the Varroa mite as they can cause developmental deformities, infections, and eventually death at a very rapid rate and because of their high reproduction rate they can multiply quicker than Varroa causing much more extensive damage.|
For more information - download the FERA leaflet: 'Tropilaelaps'
|Each Chalkbrood mummy produces millions of spores that will adhere to cells and adult bees. It is these spores that are the infective stage of the fungus and may remain viable for up to 15 years. The spores can be spread from hive to hive by drifting bees, or by the beekeeper on equipment and frames moved between colonies.|
|Chalk brood is not normally a problem in strong healthy colonies but smaller ones can suffer. In bad cases the problem may be solved by re-queening with a young and vigorous queen from a chalkbrood-free colony. Because the fungal spores remain on the comb and frames, it is a good idea to get into the habit of replacing2 or 3 of the oldest frames every year.||
Chalkbrood 'mummies' that the bees have removed form the cells
Nosema is a highly specialised parasitic Microsporidian fungal pathogen and is found in two variants - N.apis and N.cerana, have both been identified in honey bees in the UK.
Nosema spp. invade the digestive cells lining the mid-gut of the bee, there they multiply rapidly and within a few days the cells are packed with spores, the resting stage of the parasite. When the host cell ruptures, it sheds the spores into the gut where they accumulate in masses, to be later excreted by the bees. If spores from the excreta are picked up and swallowed by another bee, they can germinate and once more become active, starting another round of infection and multiplication.
Damaged intestinal tissue is subject to secondary infections and "dysentery" (brown diarrhea spots on the combs and exterior of the hive) is a common sign of infection with N. apis, but not seen with N. ceranae. N. apis infected bees also defecate inside the hive, contaminating combs with millions of infectious spores.
Worker bees that ingest spores when they are less than a week old normally do not digest food well and are not capable of producing brood food secretions. Infected bees tend to skip the brood rearing phase of life and become foragers at very young ages. Their life spans can be reduced up to 78%. Young queens that ingest Nosema apis spores normally are superseded within a month.
Should you suspect N. Apis, a good field test is to take a bee - remove it's head and then seperate the thorax from the abdomen. If the liquid in the abdomen is creamy white, suspect Nosema. In a healthy bee you should see a reddish brown liquid.
Treatment with the antibiotic Fumidil B ( now banned in the UK) inhibits the spores reproducing but does not kill the spores. An alternative remedy is the use of Thymol fed via syrup.
A disinfection of the honeycombs and utensils with 80% acetic acid is recommended for an extensive disease outbreak.
Download and read National Bee Base leaflet on Fumigating Comb
| Dysentery is not caused by a pathogen, so it is not “catchable.” This is really a form of diarrhea that afflicts bees. It is not a disease as would be the ease in real dysentery, but a functional disorder due to too long retention of the faeces during winter, caused by bad food or improper protection, or both. The term "dysentery" is here retained, not because it is accurate, but because it has been used so generally in bee literature.
About the only real remedy is settled warm weather. Even one good warm day will often serve to alleviate the trouble, as it gives the bees a chance to void their excrement out in the open air, away from the hives and the combs. Other wise the continued confinement during an extended cold spell sometimes compels the bees to retain their faeces so long that they are finally forced to void it over the combs and over the hives.
|Sacbrood is caused by a virus. In this case the virus prevents the larvae from making their final moult before pupation, after the cell is sealed. Again the larvae probably become infected via nurse bees when being fed.
The dead larvae lie in the cell in a stretched out position in a fluid filled sac, that can have the appearance of a 'Chinese Slipper' with it's curled up toe. The larvae go through a change in colour, from yellow to black and finally dry out to an easily removed brown scale at the bottom of the cell.
Sacbrood rarely has a major effect on a colony. It can appear to resolve as workers remove infected larvae from the cells. It can exist silently within the colony waiting for an opportunity to manifest itself. Control of Varroa and other hygenic measures are important to keep the colony strong and resistant to sacbrood. In severe cases, re-queening from a conolony free of this desease may help.
|Baldbrood cases are where the cells are not capped off by the worker bees. This sometimes coincides with wax moth activity, but it can also be attributed to a genetic fault in the strain of the bees. The exposed larvae contiue to develope normally and emerge as adults. To deter wax moth acitiviy, it is imperative to maintain strong healthy colonies.|
|Chilled Brood ... Conditions that reduce the number of bees needed to keep the brrod nest warm, will result in chilling of the brood. Manhandling by the beekeeper, swarming, pesticide poisoning and starvation can all lead to this condition occurring within the colony. It is easily recognised as patches of brood of all stages will be dead. Normally brood deseases don't killl every individual larva/pupa present on a brood frame. The dead brood goes through a colour change from grey to black and dries out so the remains become easily removable.|
| Mice will readily move into stored hive equipment and outdoor wintered hives. They feed on pollen,
honey and dead bees, and may destroy large numbers of frames and combs while building their nests.
Prevention and Control
||During harsh winters woodpeckers are forced to find food in apiaries, where beehives are kept.
The birds will bore a hole through the hive wall to access any grubs they can find. You can keep the woodpecker from attacking by covering your hive with wire netting but not too tight to prevent the them getting too good a foothold.
Below we have a table products cleared for use within the UK
|App and main
||6 -8 weeks||2 fluvalinate impregnated strips||Spring & autumn||Not used during honey flow||
||10 minutes||Oxalic acid 35g or 175g sachet use at 4.2% solution. Trickle 5ml between each frame of bees. Suitable for use in vapourisers at 2.3g per hive||Winter, on spring swarms and in summer by artificially blocking egg-laying||Do not use during Honey flow||
||4 weeks||2 thymol gel trays||Spring & autumn||Not used during honey flow||
||7 days||2 formic imprgnated pads||Anytime during the season||None||
||2 treatments 10 days apart||Essential oils, natural ingredients 1ml per 200ml of syrup||Spring & autumn||None|
||Variable||Essential oils, plant polyphenols sucrose. 5ml per litre of sugar syrup||Anytime||None||
||4 weeks||Thymol impregnated foam, Eucalyptus oil, Camphor, Methol. 4 strips||Once only. Spring OR Autumn||Not used during honey flow||
||4 weeks/ repeat||Sulphur impregnated board. 2 strips||Autumn/ winter months||None||
||8 Days||Concentrated extract of beta vulgaris. 10% solution in syrup if trickled||Spring & Autumn||None||
||1 week/ repeat||80% solution. 125ml on an absorbant pad.||Autumn/Winter||None||
||As rerquired||Sodium carbonate decahydrate. 150g to 500ml hot water||As required||None||
||Various||Biological Larvicide. 10ml to 200ml of water for 10 average sized hives||Spring & Autumn||None||
||3 week/repeat||Essential oils of Thyme
8g per treatment in crystal form
|Spring & Autumn||Do not use during Honey flow||
||3 weeks if sprayed||Algae, seaweed, thymol. 100ml to 1 litre water||Autumn||None|
||3 weeks||Thymol, alchol and essential oil impregnated strip. 1 strip per colony||Spring & Autumn||Do not use during Honey flow||
|Trickle2 & Oxalic
||1 week||3.2% Oxalic acid solution 100ml. 5ml per frame of bees||Any broodless periods/ swarms||Do not use during Honey flow||
||As required||Refined sugar, fructose & glucose. 1-2 Kgs per colony||Winter early spring||None||
||As required||Fructose, glucose & sucrose. 5-10 lts per colony depending on stores||Autumn, late spring and summer||None||
||As required||Pollen substiute/fructose patty. 250-500g per colony||From early March||None||